Management strategies, organizational structures and work practices in retail are increasingly complex and differentiated. The same is true for labour relations, where traditional issues are dealt with differently in collective bargaining, such as wages, working time and working conditions. In many European countries, store opening hours are becoming a politically controversial issue, but also between social partners, employers and workers, which involves intensive negotiations on ”atypical” working hours, their limits and fair pay, as well as on the use of part-time contracts. The very high proportion of women in retail also leads to new themes in collective bargaining, which focus on gender equality in the workplace, and in particular on demands for equal pay for work of equal value. The debate on atypical hours and part-time work is also linked, to some extent, to the fight against discrimination against women in the labour market. Finally, labour relations are also changing due to restructuring and new management strategies in the retail sector, while reports on collective bargaining and the role of unions and workers` representatives in small outlets are increasingly uncertain. The industrial workers` collective agreement sets minimum working conditions in the retail sector, such as pay, work allowances, hours of work and leave. For example, wages should not be covered by the minimum wages negotiated by WFP in the collective agreement. It is worth keeping in mind that it is not possible to enter into an individual employment contract on lower terms than those agreed in the collective agreement. In the EU, 25 people employ about 12 million people in the retail sector. That`s almost 8% of employees. However, this percentage varies considerably from one Member State to another, ranging from 10% in the UK to only 5% in Sweden – see Table 3 below. This is another sign of differences as structural changes have had an impact on countries.