Unlike U.S. corporate boards that prioritize short-term value creation, co-management boards set investment guidelines that promote long-term prosperity and strengthen local and national communities. This policy has led to overly competitive and innovative corporate cultures that produce many top-notch products. Robots to optimize production and increase productivity are almost five times more common in Germany (7.6 billion workers) than in the United States (1.6). It is not surprising that the sectors dominated by skilled jobs in countries that practice codetermination are more important than here; The skilled employment sector in the Netherlands, for example, which accounts for 47% of jobs in that country, is almost a third larger than that of the United States (36%). Therefore, some studies suggest that strategic interaction influences innovation activity, and others suggest that this is not the case. It is also difficult to know from these results whether the absence of a common outcome in the different industries studied means that strategic interaction is more or differently important in some industries than in others, but if this is true, it would be interesting to know which conditions have their character and meaning. However, even in studies that suggest that competitive interaction is important, we have little sense of its importance compared to other factors. In fact, Geroski (1991c) hypothesized that strategic rivalry might be second-order to the influence of factors such as technological possibilities, and Cockburn and Henderson (1994) suggest that in addition to opportunities, heterogeneous business skills also appear to be much more important. However, these comments do not suggest that we should reject the impact of strategic interaction on innovation, but rather that we need to focus more on the issue. The extent of the obligation of trade union representatives to treat information received confidentially is determined mainly by negotiations between the parties. If no agreement can be reached, the employer must apply to a court for a confidentiality decision.
Such a decision will only be made if there would otherwise be a risk of serious harm to the employers` business. However, it should be noted that trade union representatives are also always covered by explicit or implicit clauses in their employment contracts prohibiting the disclosure of confidential information. Given the difficulties in controlling for these alternative factors, it is not surprising that the studies put together are inconclusive. Cockburn and Henderson (1994) note that targeted alignment does not appear to characterize ”the bulk of research investment” in ethical pharmaceuticals. Despite qualitative evidence suggesting a deliberate agreement, Lerner (1997) cannot reject a simpler probabilistic explanation of ”catching up”. In contrast, Khanna (1995) concludes, on the basis of quantitative and qualitative evidence, that there is a competitive match within segments of the computer industry. For most of the industries in their sample, Meron and Caves (1991) found evidence of strategic alignment within groups of firms that they identified as core firms within each industry.30 In the 1950s, (powerful) unions in Scandinavia helped pass ”codetermination legislation”. This law states that unions must be involved in technology design – originally motivated by concerns about de-skilling and job losses due to automation. .