The Trump administration`s Office of the U.S. Trade Representative has proposed the USMCA, citing new digital trade measures, stronger trade secret protections and adaptations to rules of origin for motor vehicles as some of the benefits of the trade deal.  In this way, the EU will have more opportunities to discuss human rights with Mexico than we currently have. The agreement prohibits both sides from over-promoting trade and investment: as with all EU trade agreements, the agreement with Mexico will not affect EU product standards, including food and agricultural standards. On March 1, 2019, many organizations representing the agricultural sector in the United States announced their support for the USMCA and asked Congress to ratify the agreement. They also called on the Trump administration to maintain NAFTA until the new trade agreement is ratified.  On March 4, however, House Ways and Means President Richard Neal predicted a ”very hard” path through Congress for the deal.  Beginning March 7, senior White House officials met with members of the House Ways and Means as well as moderate caucuses from both sides, such as the Solvers Caucus, the Tuesday Group, and the Blue Dog Coalition, to gain support for ratification. The Trump administration has also withdrawn from the threat to withdraw from nafta, as negotiations with Congress continue.  The USMCA is expected to have very little impact on the economy.
 An International Monetary Fund (IMF) working paper released in late March 2019 established that the agreement would have a ”negligible” impact on the economy as a whole.   According to the IMF study, the USMCA ”would affect trade in the automotive, textile, and apparel sectors, while generating modest overall gains in welfare, fueled primarily by improved market access for goods with negligible effects on real GDP.”  The IMF study found that the economic benefits of the USMCA would be significantly increased if there were the end of Trump`s trade war (i.e.: if the U.S. abolishes tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from Canada and Mexico, and Canada and Mexico have dropped retaliatory duties on imports from the U.S.).  The Court encourages fair competition in trade between the two countries, without prejudice to the conditions of investment, trade in services, intellectual property rights or government procurement. An international investment tribunal would replace the current selection of private arbitration agreements contained in thousands of bilateral trade agreements around the world. Fox News reported on December 9, 2019 that negotiators from the three countries have reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three sides before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to the imposition of a $16 per hour minimum wage for Mexican autoworkers by a ”neutral” third party. Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, has also objected to the provisions on U.S.
steel and aluminum content in automotive components.  The Japan-Mexico Free Trade Agreement was Japan`s first comprehensive agreement with a country. . . .