Historians and philosophers have paid attention to flattery as an ethical and political problem. Plutarch wrote an essay on ”How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend.” Julius Caesar was infamous for his flattery. In his follicle praises, Erasmus praised flattery because he ”downcast spirits, comfort the sad, awaken the apathetic, stir the scridia, fire the sick, keep the unsubmissive, gather the lovers and hold them together.”  However, many associations of flattery are negative. Negative descriptions of flattery go back at least as far in history as the Bible. In the Divine Comedy, Dante shows flatteries wading through human excrement and explaining that their words are the equivalent of excrement, in the second Bolgia of the 8th Circle of Hell. The error of the call to flattery mimics this situation, in which a basic donor praises his listener for the fact that he correctly follows a complex logical argument and agrees. However, in the illusion of the call to flattery, there is nothing but praise. This only creates the illusion that the complex logical argument and the resulting agreement are also present. In fact, no argument was made other than praise, and the agreement was more implicit than real. This error is sometimes referred to as a call to Dieeit. The illusion I call as a call to hard individualism sometimes has aspects of this illusion: the assertion that you must ”be yourself” and ”follow your own path” may imply that you are something special or unusual (in a good way), which can be a source of flattery. Historically, flattery was used as a standard form of discourse when addressing a king or queen.
In the Renaissance, writers used to flatter the reigning monarch, as Edmund Spenser flattered Queen Elizabeth I in The Faerie Queene, William Shakespeare flattered King James I at Macbeth, and Niccolé Machiavelli flattered Lorenzo II of Medici in The Prince. The call to flattery is an illusion in which a person uses flattering and exaggerated compliments to call for the vanity of his audience to support his camp.  It is also known as pole-apple, wheel mastry, brown nosing, call to pride, call to vanity or argumentum ad superbiam.  The call to flattery is a particular type of call to emotion.  The argument tries to convince by flattering the person to convince himself, which implies that flattery is deserved because it accepts the support of the position.